Category Archives: Research

No Cement, No Screws , Yes Memory Metal Retention – RodoMedical

To cement or to screw – that is the question. Not anymore, startup RODO Medical has added a new option. Reversible retention using a shape memory metal dental retention RodoMedicalsystem which uses one or more compression plates made from various shape memory materials, e.g., nickel-titanium alloys such as Nitinol. By applying energy via heat or electrical energy, the memory metal elements change shape. To remove a crown, energy is applied via a wand and the memory metal retentive element shape shifts allowing the crown to me removed, thus avoiding the need for pulling, tugging or cutting to get the crown off the implant. A bonus is that no cement is involved avoiding the risk of cement-induced peri-implantitis and bone loss. Straumann has acquired approximately 12% of RODO Medical’s shares for an undisclosed sum and ClearChoice has announced a strategic alliance between the two companies. Rodo Medical has 8 patents on this technology.

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Topic: Dental Implant Industry, Implant Design, Implant Laboratory Technology, Patent, Research

MIT NanoTech Team produces a SuperGlue for Implants

An Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) research team that may have found a way to make bone implants less likely to fail using a high-tech adhesive that more securely bonds implants to bone by promoting cell growth between natural and artificial body parts.

In a study published in the June 26 online edition of Science Translational Medicine, the MIT team and its collaborators from several other institutions reported that the implant adhesive — a multilayered coating of ceramic and nanolayers of polymers infused with proteins — worked so well on lab rats that they will soon be ready to test it in humans.

The nanolayers, or super-thin sheets of material, hold therapies such as growth factors

Professor Paula Hammond specializes in materials design and molecule delivery at very small scales

that attract and encourage the formation of bone cells, causing them to firmly attach to the titanium implant. The coated implants required significantly more force to pull free than uncoated ones; indeed, the researchers said the resulting bond is so strong that under stress, the bone would fracture first before the interface with the implant.

The implant coating works like a tiny, elegant machine. The top coating consists of repeating layers, each impossibly thin, that contain the bone growth factor BMP-2. The layers gradually break apart over a period of weeks, releasing BMP-2 into the body. The factor then stimulates stem cells in bone marrow to transform themselves into new bone cells.

The bottom part of the coating is made of a ceramic that mimics bone, thereby attracting bone cells to its surface. This side of the coating is attached to the implant, and recently formed bone cells tend to affix to this ceramic and grow outward, adhering like “superglue” to attach the implant to the bone.

Read more at the Boston Globe

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Topic: Biologics, Bone Grafting, Research Tagged , |

Metallic Glass developed for Dental Implants

Researchers at the California Institute of Technology have developed a Palladium based glass that is an alloy of the noble metal palladium, a small fraction of silver, and a mixture of other metalloids—has shown itself in tests to have a combination of strength and toughness at a level that has not previously been seen in any other material. “Our study demonstrates for the first time that this class of materials, the metallic glasses, has the capacity to become the toughest and strongest ever known,” Demetriou says. Indeed, the researchers write in their paper, these materials allow for “pushing the envelope of damage tolerance accessible to a structural metal.” The palladium alloy described in the paper could soon be of use in biomedical implants, says Demetriou. “One example is dental implants,” Demetriou says. “Many noble-metal alloys, including palladium, are currently used in dentistry due to their chemical inertness and resistance to oxidation, tarnish, and corrosion. Owing to its superior damage tolerance, the present palladium glass can be thought of as a superior alternative to conventional palladium dental alloys. Plus, the absence of any elements considered toxic or allergenic—nickel, copper, aluminum—from the composition of this alloy will likely promote good biological compatibility.”

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Topic: Research

Tooth Regeneration Gel

A new peptide, embedded in a soft gel or a thin, flexible film and placed next to a cavity, encourages cells inside teeth to regenerate in about a month, according to a new study in the journal ACS Nano. This technology is the first of its kind.

The new gel or thin film could eliminate the need to fill painful cavities or drill deep into the root canal of an infected tooth.

The gel or thin film contains a peptide known as MSH, or melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Previous experiments, reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, showed that MSH encourages bone regeneration.

Bone and teeth are fairly similar, so the French scientists reasoned that if the MSH were applied to teeth, it should help healing as well.

To test their theory, the French scientists applied either a film or gel, both of which contained MSH, to cavity-filled mice teeth. After about one month, the cavities had disappeared, said Benkirane-Jessel, a scientist at the Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale and a co-author of the recent paper.

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Topic: Research

Titanium Foam developed for Dental Implants

Scientists at North Carolina State University have developed a new lightweight “metal foam” with elasticity similar to bone that could lead to a new generation of medical implants, likely overcoming a range of problems associated with devices currently in widespread use. “Our composite foam can be a perfect implant material to prevent stress shielding,” said Rabiei, the lead researcher. “This is because the modulus of our composite foam is matching perfectly with that of bone. That means when the implant is in the body and a load is applied to the bone, as a result of walking, chewing, etc., both the implant and the surrounding bone will take a fair share of the load,” Rabiei said. “It is unlike bulk metal implants, in which the metal takes on the majority of load.” When this occurs, “the bone starts to become lazy and eventually dies because it is ‘left out,’ and is not active anymore,” she added.

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Topic: Research

Why Oral Pain is Difficult to Locate Accurately

To see how the brain responds to pain emanating from different teeth, researchers led by Clemens Forster of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg in Germany used fMRI to monitor changes in activity when the upper tooth or the lower tooth was zapped. “At the beginning, we expected a good difference, but that was not the case,” Forster says. Because the same regions were active in both toothaches, the brain — and the person — couldn’t tell where the pain was coming from. “Dentists should be aware that patients aren’t always able to locate the pain,” Forster says. “There are physiological and anatomical reasons for that.”

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Topic: Research

Brookhaven Lab and BioSET, Inc., Patent a Synthetic Peptide That Enhances Bone Growth

Brookhaven Science Associates, the company that operates and manages the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and Biosurface Engineering Technologies, Inc. (BioSET), have been issued a U.S. patent on a synthetic peptide, called B2A. B2A enhances the effects of a tissue growth factor known as bone morphogenetic protein 2, or BMP-2. BMPs are a family of proteins in the human body responsible for the proliferation, repair and differentiation of cells in many tissues, including bone. Tom Rouche, BioSET President and CEO said “We have developed a novel combination medical device, called AMPLEX, that incorporates B2A osteo-inductive growth factor with an ultra-high grade ceramic bone substitute for use in this type of surgery. Preclinical studies have found that it is a safe and highly effective.”

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Topic: Research

All you ever wanted to know about Titanium

This interesting article about `Titanium uses in Industry` reveals some facts you may not have known about your favorite metal:

  • It has an extremely low response to magnetism
  • Its use in medicine also encompasses surgical instruments and those used in image-guided surgery and magnetic resonance imagery.
  • It is the ninth most plentiful element present in the Earths crust. It has been found in meteorites and detected in the sun and class M stars.
  • The Apollo 17 moon mission brought back rocks containing Titanium compounds.
  • Russia made an attempt to corner the market in Titanium to deprive the US and its allies of the material.
  • Many more fun facts in the article
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Topic: Research

Transcription Factor found that Controls Ameloblast Function (Enamel Production)

Scientists at Oregon State University have found a gene involved in enamel production.
In the latest research, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a team led by Chrissa Kioussi and Mark Leid bred mice that lacked a gene known as Ctip2. The gene, called Ctip2, is a “transcription factor” that was already known to have several functions – in immune response, and the development of skin and the nervous system. Scientists can now add tooth development to that list. The discovery was made after researchers noticed that mice born without the gene grew teeth lacking enamel.
By understanding the genetics of tooth development, Kioussi said it may be possible to repair damaged enamel and even produce new teeth in the laboratory.
Paul Sharpe, an expert on tooth development at the Dental Institute at King`s College London, said: “If you could find some way of growing ameloblasts that make enamel, you could find a way to repair teeth.
“Any gene like this is worth understanding. The more we learn about it the more we can use the information to make biological models of tooth repair.”

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Topic: Research

AAE: Dental Implants Require Much More Follow-up Treatment than Root Canals

A study in the November issue of the Journal of Endodontics claims that dental implants require much more follow-up treatment than root canals, according to a study by researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Their study results reported that the success rate for the dental implants was 98.4 percent; for root canals it was 99.3 percent. However, 12.4 percent of the dental implants required additional interventions, compared with 1.4 percent of the root canals.
“Considering these results in light of the growing body of evidence on the impact of oral health on overall health, it is imperative for dental professionals to partner with endodontists who have advanced training in examining whether a natural tooth can be saved through root canal treatment,” said Dr. Louis Rossman, an endodontist and president of the American Association of Endodontists.

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Topic: Research

Alcohol Containing Mouth Rinse linked with Increased Cancer Risk

Australian researchers have linked mouthwash containing alcohol to an increased risk of developing oral cancer. The alcohol in mouthwash is believed to allow cancer causing compounds to attack the lining of the mouth more easily.
The review author, Michael McCullough, is an Associate Professor in Oral medicine at Melbourne University. He says dentists need to be aware of the risks of mouthwash. “If they are going to recommend alcohol-containing products then they recommend it for a good reason, for a short period of time,” he said.
“With this evidence that we`ve reviewed, we think it`s not advisable for them to recommend it for the long, over a long period of time.”

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Topic: Research

Nanocrystallizing Implant Surfaces Reduces Biofilm Infections

Canadian researchers at the University of Alberta have found the surface nanocrystallization of a metallic material is an effective approach for modifying the surface energy of metals. “Our results demonstrate that the combination of surface nanocrystallization and thermal oxidation treatment is a promising approach to suppress the formation of infectious biofilms on metallic materials, thus providing a surface technique to minimize bacterial biofilms on implant surfaces for improved orthodontic and orthopedic applications” says Li the lead researcher. This surface modification is promising not only for suppressing bacterial biofilms on medical implant materials but also has potential in treating materials for food processing and storage as well as for bio-corrosion control. Li points out that it is also possible to add additional elements into the nanocrystalline surface layer to further improve surfaces with anti-bacteria capability.

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Topic: Research

Histatin Speeds Oral Healing

A report by scientists from the Netherlands published in the FASEB Journal identifies a compound in human saliva that greatly speeds wound healing. Scientists found that Histatin, a small protein in saliva previously only believed to kill bacteria was responsible for the healing. Because saliva is a complex liquid with many components, the next step was to identify which component was responsible for wound healing. Using various techniques the researchers split the saliva into its individual components, tested each in their wound model, and finally determined that Histatin was responsible. “This study not only answers the biological question of why animals lick their wounds,” said Gerald Weissmann, MD, Editor-in-Chief of the FASEB Journal, “it also explains why wounds in the mouth, like those of a tooth extraction, heal much faster than comparable wounds of the skin and bone. It also directs us to begin looking at saliva as a source for new drugs

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Topic: Research

Nanocrystalline Titanium shows Exceptional Mechanical Properties

Novel processing of commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) has produced exceptional mechanical properties and recent clinical trials have proven its superior biocompatibility as well. CP Ti is desirable mainly for its superior biocompatibility, but suffers from low strength compared to either steel or alloyed titaniums. Severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing aims to get microstructural refinement to a level not achievable with traditional processing yielding nanocrystalline titanium. Fatigue life has nearly doubled and although damage tolerance suffered, the levels are still more than acceptable for medical devices. Mouse fibroblast cells were seeded to test biological compatibility, and the SPD-processed titanium showed significant improvements in cell occupancy rates, compared to conventionally processed CP Ti. Clinical trials of this material are progressing well using dental implants, where the higher strength has allowed for smaller implants to be fabricated, enabling surgeries that were previously limited by small spaces and insufficient bone to anchor the implant.

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Topic: Research

Nanoparticles Aid Bone Growth

Bioengineers and bioscientists at Rice University and Radboud University in Nijmegen, Netherlands, have shown they can grow denser bone tissue by sprinkling stick-like nanoparticles throughout the porous material used to pattern the bone. To grow new bone, tissue engineers typically place bone cells on porous, biodegradable materials called scaffolds, which act as patterns. With the right chemical and physical cues, the cells can be coaxed into producing new bone. As the scaffold degrades, it is replaced by new bone. “Ideally, a scaffold should be highly porous, nontoxic and biodegradable, yet strong enough to bear the structural load of the bone that will eventually replace it,” said lead researcher Antonios Mikos, Rice`s J.W. Cox Professor in Bioengineering, professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering and the director of Rice`s Center for Excellence in Tissue Engineering. “Previous research has shown that carbon nanotubes give added strength to polymer scaffolds, but this is the first study to examine the performance of these materials in an animal model.”

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Topic: Research

Cannabis Smoking may be a Risk factor for Periodontal Disease – Peri-Implantitis?

Researchers at the Dunedin School of Medicine, Dunedin, New Zealand have reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) that Cannabis smoking may be a risk factor for periodontal disease that is independent of the use of tobacco. Tobacco smoking was strongly associated with periodontal disease experience, but there was no interaction between cannabis use and tobacco smoking in predicting the condition`s occurrence

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Topic: Research

Osteo Odonto Kerato Prosthesis

Dr Christopher Lie of the Sussex Eye Hospital in Brighton, England performed a sight restoring procedure called Osteo Odonto Kerato Prosthesis (OOKP) which involves fitting a living canine tooth with an optical cylinder and transplanting it into the eye cavity, restoring a blind Irishman`s sight. The procedure involves removing a canine tooth, a part of the adjacent bone and related ligaments from a patient. It is attached in the first stage to the cheek area to develop a blood supply and is allowed to heal for several months.
Later the tooth complex is removed from the cheek area and placed within the eye, attaching a corneal replacement implant. Bob McNichol, 57, from County Mayo in the western part of Ireland was blinded by a freak accident explosion involving melted aluminum at a recycling business two years ago received the tooth from his son Robert, 23.

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Topic: Research

Dark-Field Xray Imaging Improves Diagnostic Resolution

Swiss Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute have developed a novel method for producing dark-field x-ray images at wavelengths used in typical medical and industrial imaging equipment. Dark-field images provide more detail than ordinary x-ray radiographs and could be used to diagnose the onset of osteoporosis, breast cancer or Alzheimer’s disease. Unlike traditional x-ray images, which show a simple absorption contrast, dark-field images capture the scattering of the radiation within the material itself, exposing subtle inner changes in bone, soft tissue, or alloys. The overall clarity of the images is striking. The improved sensitivity in measuring bone density and hairline fractures could help diagnose the onset of osteoporosis.

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Topic: Research

Maxillary Bone Regeneration using Stem Cells

Researchers at the Regea Institute of Regenerative Medicine, part of the University of Tampere, Finland have successfully replaced a 65-year-old patient`s upper jaw with a bone transplant cultivated from stem cells isolated from his own fatty tissue and grown inside his abdomen. Stem cells were isolated from the patient`s fat and grew for two weeks in a specially formulated nutritious soup that included the patient`s own blood serum. When they had enough cells to work with, they attached them to a scaffold made out of a calcium phosphate biomaterial and then put it inside the patient`s abdomen to grow for nine months. The cells turned into a variety of tissues and even produced blood vessels, the researchers said. The block was later transplanted into the patient`s head and connected to the skull bone using screws and microsurgery to connect arteries and veins to the vessels of the neck. The patient`s upper jaw had previously been removed due to a benign tumor and he was unable to eat or speak without the use of a removable prosthesis.

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Topic: Research

Saliva Test for Breast Cancer

Researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston can identify and quantify specific protein markers in human saliva to provide an early, non-invasive diagnosis of breast cancer, according to a study published in today’s issue of the journal Cancer Investigation. “Why not the dentist?” said lead researcher Charles Streckfus, D.D.S., . “Most folks, especially women and children, visit the dental office way more often than they ever see the physician. Saliva is a non-invasive, quicker way for detection.” Streckfus and his team compared the levels of expression of proteins in the saliva of patients with either malignant or benign tumors to saliva from normal controls to find those that are abnormally expressed in the diseased state. Patients’ proteins that are significantly higher or lower than the norm were considered biomarker candidates. Streckfus and his collaborators are continuing to pursue salivary diagnostics for other types of cancer, such as ovarian, endometrial, cervical and head and neck cancers.

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Topic: Research

Gold Nanoparticles Laser Sintered to Reduce Dentinal Hypersensitivity

Researchers at the Chemistry and Biochemistry Department at National Chung Cheng University in Taiwan has published a paper in Nanotechnology demonstrating the use of gold nanoparticles in occluding dental tubules. Researchers have found that sensitive teeth have an increased number of dentinal tubules (35.6% compared to 9.3%) and are wider in diameter (0.83 µm compared to 0.43 µm) than the dentinal tubules of non sensitive dentine. The Chinese researchers have demonstrated that this tubules can be blocked with the aid of gold nanoparticles.
An interesting aspect of gold at the nanoscale is that gold nanoparticles exhibit a clear size-dependent trend: the smaller gold nanoparticles get, the lower is their melting point. This deviation of the melting temperature from the bulk value becomes dramatic at a size around 5 nm in diameter, ultimately reaching well under 50% of the bulk melting point of gold.One of the methods of closing sub-micron sized dentinal tubules explored by Dr. Chris Wang and his team involved the sintering of highly concentrated gold nanoparticles that were brushed into the exposed open ends of dentinal tubules. Laser irradiation induced the photofusion of gold nanoparticles via photothermal conversion.

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Topic: Research

Oral Bisphosphonate-Induced Osteonecrosis Clinical Management Paper Published

Drs. Marx et al. of the University of Miami have published a comprehensive paper on `Risk factors, Prediction of Risk using Serum CTX Testing, Prevention and Treatment` of Oral Bisphosphonate-Induced Osteonecrosis in the December 2007 issue of the Journal of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery (pages 2397-2410). It gives specific guidelines to help to assess the risk of BRONJ and a suggested course of treatment should the condition develop in one of your patients.

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Topic: Research

Rattlesnake Venom-derived Fibrin Adhesive used in Periodontal Surgery

A new study in the October issue of the Journal of Periodontology (JOP) found that an adhesive made from an enzyme found in snake venom was a more effective and beneficial adhesive when used to close surgical incisions than traditional sutures. The study followed 15 patients during the healing process after a gingival (gum) graft. When the adhesive derived from snake venom was used, those patients had faster recovery and better results than those treated with traditional sutures. `This unique type of adhesive may stimulate faster tissue repair. It is a more natural form of adhesive in comparison to traditional sutures used after surgery,` explained study author Monica Barbosa, Phd, Bauru Dental School at the University of Sao Paulo, `More studies are needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of this alternative.`
`This adhesive may be a less infectious alternative to traditional sutures,` said Preston D. Miller, DDS, and AAP president. `This research highlights the array of therapies available for patients; both traditional and natural alternatives. There continues to be a lot of exciting and innovative research in the field of periodontics.`

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Topic: Research

Increase in CT Scan use increases Cancer Risk

A New England Journal of Medicine article found that the number of CT Scans most people are exposed to had risen dramatically in the past 27 years. In 1980, doctors ordered an average of 3 million scans per year in the United States. Now, about 62 million CT Scans are done each year in this country. The rise in CT Scans can be attributed, in part, to an increase in `defensive` medicine. This occurs, for example, when people who are admitted to an emergency room are routinely given a CT Scan even before receiving a diagnosis or being seen by doctor. Controversial uses of CT Scans for whole-body scanning, virtual colonoscopy and lung cancer screening have also made CT Scans more prevalent.

The dose of radiation received by patients subject to a CT Scan can be 50 to 100 times larger than that of a traditional x-ray. That is exactly where the problem of CT Scan overuse lies. The type of radiation used in CT Scans, ionizing radiation, has the capacity to damage DNA, causing cells to mutate. This in turn leads to cancer. While the risk of one CT Scan to an individual is small, the study`s authors wrote that they are concerned about the built-up risk of frequent CT Scans over time. In a few decades, as many as 2% of all cancers in the United States might be caused by radiation from CT scans given now.

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Topic: Research

Carbon Nanotubes Double Human Osteoblast Growth Rate

A team of Brown University engineers, led by Thomas Webster, has discovered a new material that could significantly increase osseointegration success rate. Osteoblasts grow faster and produce more calcium on anodized titanium covered in carbon nanotubes compared with plain anodized titanium and the non-anodized version currently used in orthopaedic implants. The work, published in Nanotechnology, uncovers a new material that can be used to make more successful implants. The research also shows tantalizing promise for an all-new device: a “smart” implant that can sense and report on bone growth

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Topic: Research

Harvard Researchers Pioneer Pain-Specific Local Anesthesia from Chili Peppers

The new method exploits a membrane-spanning protein called TRPV1, which is unique to pain-sensing neurons. TRPV1 forms a large channel, where molecules can enter and exit the cell. But a “gate” typically blocks this opening. The gate opens when cells are exposed to heat or the chili-pepper ingredient capsaicin. Thus, bathing pain-sensing neurons in capsaicin leaves these channels open, but non-pain sensing neurons are unaffected because they do not possess TRPV1.

“We’re optimistic that this method will eventually be applied to humans and change our experience during procedures ranging from knee surgery to tooth extractions,” adds Professor Clifford Woolf of Massachusetts General Hospital, who is senior author on the study
Despite enormous investments by industry, surgical pain management has changed little since the first successful demonstration of ether general anesthesia at MGH in 1846. General and local anesthetics work by interfering with the excitability of all neurons, not just pain-sensing ones. Thus, these drugs produce dramatic side effects, such as loss of consciousness in the case of general anesthetics or temporary paralysis for local anesthetics.
“We’re offering a targeted approach to pain management that avoids these problems,” says Woolf.

“Eventually this method could completely transform surgical and post-surgical analgesia, allowing patients to remain fully alert without experiencing pain or paralysis,” says Woolf.

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Topic: Research

MIT Investigates Molecular Mechanism Responsible for Bone`s Toughness

Professor Markus Buehler of MIT`s Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering has revealed for the first time the role of bone`s atomistic structure in a toughening mechanism that incorporates two theories previously proposed by researchers eager to understand the secret behind the material`s lightweight strength. He studied the molecular structure of the mineralized collagen fibrils that make up level 2 bone, hoping to find the mechanism behind bone`s strength, which is considerable for such a lightweight, porous material. When pressure is applied to the fabric-like fibrils, some of the weak bonds between the collagen molecules and crystals break, creating small gaps or stretched areas in the fibrils. This stretching spreads the pressure over a broader area, and in effect, protects other, stronger bonds within the collagen molecule itself, which might break outright if all the pressure were focused on them. The stretching also lets the tiny crystals shift position in response to the force, rather than shatter, which would be the likely response of a larger crystal.

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Topic: Research

Dento-Munch – A Robotic Chewing System

UK Researchers have developed a robotic system that mimics human biting and chewing. The `Dento-Munch` system will be used to test dental materials for wear and tear. It is seen as a less expensive and less time-consuming alternative to clinical trials. The robot that can reproduce the full movement of the human jaw. Two platforms act as the upper and lower jaws, with the lower jaw capable of moving in 6 degrees of freedom. Just like the human jaw, it can move and rotate around each 3D axis: up and down, forwards and backwards, and left and right. The software controlling the motors and gearboxes inside `Dento-Munch` are also designed to respond to loads in a similar way to muscles and tendons.

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Topic: Research

Self-Regeneration of Teeth with the Wnt Pathway

Researchers from the Institute of Biotechnology at the University of Helsinki and their collaborators from Berlin and Kyoto have now shown that continuous tooth generation can be induced in mammals. The research results were published in `Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,` (PNAS). The researchers activated the Wnt signaling pathway in mouse tissue; this signaling pathway is one of those used for cell communication and plays an important role in embryonic development. As a result of stimulating this particular signaling pathway, one mouse molar developed dozens of new teeth with normal dentin, tooth enamel and developing roots. The crowns were, however, simple and cone-shaped, unlike the typically more complex multiple cusps of mouse molars.

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Stem Cells used to Regenerate Dentin and PDL in a HA Implant

Using stem cells harvested from the extracted wisdom teeth of young adults, researchers have successfully generated tooth root and supporting tooth ligaments to support a crown restoration in experiments using miniature pigs.
The restored tooth mirrored the original tooth in function and strength, the research team reports in the December issue of the open access medical journal PLoS ONE. The technique holds promise for use in humans, the investigators say.
Dr. Songtao Shi said: “In this study, we use stem cell technology to generate `a bio-root and periodontal tissue` along with dental clinical porcelain crown technique to restore tooth function in swine (mini-pig). Implant patients must have sufficient bone in the jaw to support the implant. For those who don`t, this therapy would be a great alternative,” Shi said in a statement.

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Topic: Research